Book Name: Psychology of Language
Author: Jane Eichison Aichison, J
Translator: Dr. Abdul Khalil Hajati
Publisher: Amirkabir Publications – 1985
Evolutionary biologists’ research shows that humans and their biological cousins split about 1.5 million years before their common ancestor.
The competitive advantage of recent primates over their common ancestor through the “natural selection” mechanism led to the extinction of the common ancestor, and the current monkeys, for all their differences, continued to live a similar life pattern.
But another gene mutation, which occurred about 200,000 to 300,000 years ago, completely separated human destiny from its biological cousins. The recent mutation caused a part of the modern human brain (homosapiens sapiens) to be completely larger than its cousins. This part of the brain is called the prefrontal lobe.
Everything we call the “human psyche”, which has a completely different function from the function of the nervous system of other animals, is the product of the action of this prefrontal cortex of the brain.
The prefrontal lobe itself has three components: “orbitofrontal“, “median” and ” dorsolateral “. The dorsolateral part of the prefrontal lobe has a function called “Abstraction“.
“Abstraction” means discovering the common ground between different phenomena. Crows, parrots, and swallows, for example, are different in many ways: but the dorsolateral part of the prefrontal lobe makes it easy for us to see that we can fit these three into one “class”: birds.
Abstraction is the first step in word formation. Think of the words flight, growth, power, growth, destruction, and love. Each of them has hundreds of examples. When we talk about “power”.
Do we mean the power of an elephant or the power of a bomb? Physical strength or mental strength? There is not the slightest “objective” similarity between the power of an elephant and the power of an earthquake and the mental power of a patient. But the dorsolateral part of our brain can discover and “see” something that lacks “common objectivity.”
When man was able to discover “commonalities,” he was able to “simplify” the world. Now, instead of having tens of thousands of phenomena in mind, he could think of hundreds of phenomena, and just as a computer with a “zero-one” numerical basis calculates tens of times the human brain with a decimal basis, so does the human brain with this mutation and gain power. Abstraction became much more powerful than animal brains.
But the word did not make as much difference as the sentence! From a linguistic point of view, “Chomsky reproductive evolution” is not a unit of language of a word, but a sentence. Sentences make communication more accurate and faster. Consider, for example, the three words “child,” “mother,” and “kiss.”
If language only contained words, we could have considered the occurrence of a kiss between mother and child by presenting these three words, but who was active in this event, who was passive, and when did this event occur from the exchange of these three The word is not known, but when we say, “Mother, kiss the child,” it is clear that the mother is the cause of this event and the child is the object of this event, and this event has happened in the past.
According to Chomsky, our brain is linguistic. Research by Chomsky et al. Has strongly demonstrated that the formation of language is completely dependent on the brain, which is genetically predisposed to language acceptance, and that this talent is not created gradually but suddenly and under the influence of a gene mutation.
Dr. Mohammad Reza Sargolzaei – Psychiatrist
Translated By: Negar Kolkar
The original name of the book is:
The Articulate Mammal: An Introduction to Psycholinguistics
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